Video answer: Cholinergic drugs - pharmacology, animation
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Examples of direct-acting cholinergic agents include choline esters (acetylcholine, methacholine, carbachol, bethanechol, tacrine) and alkaloids (muscarine, pilocarpine, cevimeline). Indirect-acting cholinergic agents increase the availability of acetylcholine at the cholinergic receptors.
Video answer: Cholinergic transmission | acetylcholine synthesis & metabolism | cholinergic drugs | pharmacology
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Now, let's take a closer look a cholinergic blocking drugs. Cholinergic Blocking Drugs. The medication scopolamine is a cholinergic blocking drug.
Cholinergic agonists are the name given to a group of medicines that mimic the actions of acetylcholine. Acetylcholine is one of the most common neurotransmitters in our body, and it has actions in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. The peripheral nervous system consists of the autonomic nervous system (which regulates involuntary ...
Generally, cholinergic muscle stimulants are cholinesterase inhibitors. They block the cholinesterase enzyme, which is responsible for breaking down the acetylcholine in the synapses. This inhibition provides more acetylcholine in the neuromuscular junction for a longer period of time. Cholinergic muscle stimulants are used to diagnose and treat ...
One acetylcholine-like drug that is employed therapeutically is pilocarpine, a selective muscarinic-receptor agonist that is used in eyedrops to constrict the pupil and to decrease the intraocular pressure that is raised in the disease glaucoma. Antagonists acting on muscarinic receptors include such drugs as atropine and scopolamine.
Cholinergic drugs are also used in control of glaucoma, a disease that is caused by increased pressure inside the eye. The most common drugs used for this purpose are demecarium (Humorsol) and echthiophate (Phospholine iodide).
Some cholinergic drugs, such as muscarine, pilocarpine, and arecoline, mimic the activity of acetylcholine in stimulating the parasympathetic nervous system. These drugs, however, have few therapeutic uses.
Another example of an agonist is nicotine, found in tobacco. Antagonists. Many cholinergic drugs are acetylcholine receptor antagonists, which block acetylcholine receptors. Some antagonists are atropine, scopolamine, hexamethonium and trimethaphan.
Drug Effects of Cholinergic Agents • Cardiovascular effects – Decreased heart rate( Bradycardia) – Vasodilation (NO mediated) • Stimulate intestine and bladder – Increased gastric secretions – Increased gastrointestinal motility – Increased urinary frequency 8.
Examples of cognitive enhancement cholinergic drugs include the Alzheimer's drugs Galantamine, Donepezil, Rivastigmine, Tacrine and Meclofenoxate. Cognitive enhancement drugs: can they help boost your memory? therapies for cognitive impairment can improve brain function, but they may not be appropriate for age-related memory problems
Anticholinergics are only available with a doctor’s prescription. Examples of these drugs include: atropine (Atropen) belladonna alkaloids; benztropine mesylate (Cogentin) clidinium